How To Analyze Machine and Sensor Data
Machines know things. From connected cars, to equipment in the field, to machines on the assembly line floor—sensors stream low-cost, always-on data. Hadoop makes it easier for you to store and refine that data and identify meaningful patterns, providing you with the insight to make proactive business decisions using predictive analytics.
See how Hadoop can be used to analyze heating, ventilation and air conditioning data to maintain ideal office temperatures and minimize expenses:
In this demo, learn how to:
- Stream sensor data into HDFS with Flume
- Import structured data into HDFS with Sqoop
- Use HCatalog to build a relational view of the data
- Use Hive and Pig scripts to refine the data
- Import the data into Microsoft Excel with the ODBC connector
- Visualize data with Powerview
This Hadoop tutorial is from the Hortonworks Sandbox – a single-node Hadoop cluster running in a virtual machine. Download to run this and other tutorials in the series. The tutorials presented here are for Sandbox v2.0
This tutorial describes how to refine data from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems using the Hortonworks Data Platform, and how to analyze the refined sensor data to maintain optimal building temperatures.
Demo: Here is the video demo of what you’ll be doing in this tutorial:
A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and transforms it into a digital signal. Sensors are always on, capturing data at a low cost, and powering the “Internet of Things.”
Potential Uses of Sensor Data
Sensors can be used to collect data from many sources, such as:
- To monitor machines or infrastructure such as ventilation equipment, bridges, energy meters, or airplane engines. This data can be used for predictive analytics, to repair or replace these items before they break.
- To monitor natural phenomena such as meteorological patterns, underground pressure during oil extraction, or patient vital statistics during recovery from a medical procedure.
In this tutorial, we will focus on sensor data from building operations. Specifically, we will refine and analyze the data from Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems in 20 large buildings around the world.
- Hortonworks Sandbox (installed and running)
- Hortonworks ODBC driver installed and configured
- Tutorial 7: Installing and Configuring the Hortonworks ODBC driver on Windows 7
- Tutorial 11: Installing and Configuring the Hortonworks ODBC driver on Mac OS X
- Microsoft Excel 2013 Professional Plus
- In this tutorial, the Hortonworks Sandbox is installed on an Oracle VirtualBox virtual machine (VM) – your screens may be different.
- Install the ODBC driver that matches the version of Excel you are using (32-bit or 64-bit).
- In this tutorial, we will use the Power View feature in Microsoft Excel 2013 to visualize the sensor data. Power View is currently only available in Microsoft Office Professional Plus and Microsoft Office 365 Professional Plus.
- Note, other versions of Excel will work, but the visualizations will be limited to charts. You can connect to any other visualization tool you like
To refine and analyze HVAC sensor data, we will:
- Download and extract the sensor data files.
- Load the sensor data into the Hortonworks Sandbox.
- Run two Hive scripts to refine the sensor data.
- Access the refined sensor data with Microsoft Excel.
- Visualize the sensor data using Excel Power View.
Step 1: Download and Extract the Sensor Data Files
- You can download the sample sensor data contained in a compressed (.zip) folder here:SensorFiles.zip
- Save the SensorFiles.zip file to your computer, then extract the files. You should see a SensorFiles folder that contains the following files:
- HVAC.csv – contains the targeted building temperatures, along with the actual (measured) building temperatures. The building temperature data was obtained using Apache Flume. Flume can be used as a log aggregator, collecting log data from many diverse sources and moving it to a centralized data store. In this case, Flume was used to capture the sensor log data, which we can now load into the Hadoop Distributed File System (HFDS). For more details on Flume, refer to Tutorial 13: Refining and Visualizing Sentiment Data
- building.csv – contains the “building” database table. Apache Sqoop can be used to transfer this type of data from a structured database into HFDS.
Step 2: Load the Sensor Data into the Hortonworks Sandbox
- Open the Sandbox HUE and click the HCatalog icon in the toolbar at the top of the page, then click Create a new table from a file.
- On the “Create a new table from a file” page, type “HVAC” in the Table Name box, then click Choose a file under the Input File box.
- On the “Choose a file” pop-up, click Upload a file.
- Use the File Upload dialog to browse to the SensorFiles folder you extracted previously. Select the HVAC.csv file, then click Open.
- On the “Choose a file” pop-up, click the HVAC.csv file.
- The default settings on the “Create a new table from a file” page are correct for this file, scroll down to the bottom of the page and click Create table.
- A progress indicator appears while the table is being created.
- When the table has been created, it appears in the HCatalog Table List.
- Repeat the previous steps to create a “building” table by uploading the building.csv file.
- Now let’s take a look at the two data tables. On the HCatalog Table List page, select the check box next to the “hvac” table, then click Browse Data. We can see that the “hvac” table includes columns for date, time, the target temperature, the actual temperature, the system identifier, the system age, and the building ID.
- Navigate back to the HCatalog Table List page. Select the check box next to the “building” table, then click Browse Data. We can see that the “building” table includes columns for the building identifier, the building manager, the building age, the HVAC product in the building, and the country in which the building is located.
Step 3: Run Two Hive Scripts to Refine the Sensor Data
We will now use two Hive scripts to refine the sensor data. We hope to accomplish three goals with this data:
- Reduce heating and cooling expenses.
- Keep indoor temperatures in a comfortable range between 65-70 degrees.
- Identify which HVAC products are reliable, and replace unreliable equipment with those models.
- First, we will identify whether the actual temperature was more than five degrees different from the target temperature.In the Sandbox HUE, click the Beeswax (Hive UI) icon in the toolbar at the top of the page to display the Query Editor.
Paste the following script in the Query Editor box, then click Execute:
CREATE TABLE hvac_temperatures as select *, targettemp - actualtemp as temp_diff, IF((targettemp - actualtemp) > 5, 'COLD', IF((targettemp - actualtemp) < -5, 'HOT', 'NORMAL')) AS temprange, IF((targettemp - actualtemp) > 5, '1', IF((targettemp - actualtemp) < -5, '1', 0)) AS extremetemp from hvac;
- To view the data generated by the script, click Tables in the menu at the top of the page, select the checkbox next to
hvac_temperatures, and then click Browse Data.
- On the Query Results page, us the slider to scroll to the right. You will notice that two new attributes appear in the
hvac_temperaturestable.The data in the “temprange” column indicates whether the actual temperature was:
- NORMAL – within 5 degrees of the target temperature.
- COLD – more than five degrees colder than the target temperature.
- HOT – more than 5 degrees warmer than the target temperature.
If the temperature is outside of the normal range, “extremetemp” is assigned a value of 1; otherwise its value is 0.
- Next we will combine the “hvac” and “hvac_temperatures” data sets.In the Sandbox HUE, click the Beeswax (Hive UI) icon in the toolbar at the top of the page to display the Query Editor.
- Paste the following script in the Query Editor box, then click Execute:
create table if not exists hvac_building as select h.*, b.country, b.hvacproduct, b.buildingage, b.buildingmgr from building b join hvac_temperatures h on b.buildingid = h.buildingid;
- To view the data generated by the script, click Tables in the menu at the top of the page, select the checkbox next to
hvac_building, and then click Browse Data.
hvac_temperaturestable is displayed on the Query Results page.
Now that we have refined the HVAC sensor data, we can access the data with Microsoft Excel.
Step 4: Access the Refined Sentiment Data with Microsoft Excel
In this section, we will use Microsoft Excel Professional Plus 2013 to access the refined sentiment data.
- In Windows, open a new Excel workbook, then select Data > From Other Sources > From Microsoft Query.
- On the Choose Data Source pop-up, select the Hortonworks ODBC data source you installed previously, then click OK.The Hortonworks ODBC driver enables you to access Hortonworks data with Excel and other Business Intelligence (BI) applications that support ODBC.
- After the connection to the Sandbox is established, the Query Wizard appears. Select the “hvac_building” table in the Available tables and columns box, then click the right arrow button to add the entire “hvac_building” table to the query. Click Next to continue.
- On the Filter Data screen, click Next to continue without filtering the data.
- On the Sort Order screen, click Next to continue without setting a sort order.
- Click Finish on the Query Wizard Finish screen to retrieve the query data from the Sandbox and import it into Excel.
- On the Import Data dialog box, click OK to accept the default settings and import the data as a table.
- The imported query data appears in the Excel workbook.
Now that we have successfully imported the refined sensor data into Microsoft Excel, we can use the Excel Power View feature to analyze and visualize the data.
Step 5: Visualize the Sensor Data Using Excel Power View
We will begin the data visualization by mapping the buildings that are most frequently outside of the optimal temperature range.
- In the Excel worksheet with the imported “hvac_building” table, select Insert > Power View to open a new Power View report.
- The Power View Fields area appears on the right side of the window, with the data table displayed on the left. Drag the handles or click the Pop Out icon to maximize the size of the data table.
- In the Power View Fields area, select the checkboxes next to the country and extremetemp fields, and clear all of the other checkboxes. You may need to scroll down to see all of the check boxes.
- In the FIELDS box, click the down-arrow at the right of the extremetemp field, then select Count (Not Blank).
- Click Map on the Design tab in the top menu.
- The map view displays a global view of the data. We can see that the office in Finland had 814 sensor readings where the temperature was more than five degrees higher or lower than the target temperature. In contrast, the German office is doing a better job maintaining ideal office temperatures, with only 363 readings outside of the ideal range.
- Hot offices can lead to employee complaints and reduced productivity. Let’s see which offices run hot.In the Power View Fields area, clear the extremetemp checkbox and select the temprange checkbox. Click the down-arrow at the right of the temprange field, then select Add as Size.
- Drag temprange from the Power View Fields area to the Filters box, then select the HOT checkbox. We can see that the buildings in Finland and France run hot most often.
- Cold offices cause elevated energy expenditures and employee discomfort.In the Filters box, clear the HOT checkbox and select the COLD checkbox. We can see that the buildings in Finland and Indonesia run cold most often.
- Our data set includes information about the performance of five brands of HVAC equipment, distributed across many types of buildings in a wide variety of climates. We can use this data to assess the relative reliability of the different HVAC models.
- Open a new Excel worksheet, then select Data > From Other Sources > From Microsoft Query to access the hvac_building table. Follow the same procedure as before to import the data, but this time only select the “hvacproduct” and “extremetemp” columns.
- In the Excel worksheet with the imported “hvacproduct” and “extremetemp” columns, select Insert > Power View to open a new Power View report.
- Click the Pop Out icon to maximize the size of the data table. In the FIELDS box, click the down-arrow at the right of the extremetemp field, then select Count (Not Blank).
- Select Column Chart > Stacked Columnin the top menu.
- Click the down-arrow next to sort by hvacproduct in the upper left corner of the chart area, then select Count of extremetemp.
- We can see that the GG1919 model seems to regulate temperature most reliably, whereas the FN39TG failed to maintain the appropriate temperature range 9% more frequently than the GG1919.
We’ve shown how the Hortonworks Data Platform (HDP) can store and analyze sensor data. With real-time access to massive amounts of temperature and other types of data on HDP, your facilities department can initiate data-driven strategies to reduce energy expenditures and improve employee comfort.
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